Open Access Publishing in China

来源: Open Access Publishing in China

Following rapid development in the economy and huge investment in R&D, China is now widely recognised as one of the leading countries of the world in terms of the number of published journals and scientific articles. In 2015, there were over 10,000 journals in China, of which 4983 (49.76%) were in Science and Technology, according to the “Statistical Data of Chinese Science and Technology Papers 2015”.

Surprisingly, as of 4 June 2017, only 71 open access journals from China have been registered in DOAJ, which is about 0.75% of the total number of DOAJ indexed journals. If we take 10,000 as the estimated total number of journals in China at this moment, then this suggests only 0.71% of journals in China are open access. From these data people would think the open access movement in China is really lagging behind. Is this true? Does this actually means that Chinese scholars or publishers are not willing to share? The answer is no.

Though it is still in progress, my research on open access publishing in China now means that I have collated a list containing information on more than 1200 journals and I am checking many items of journal information against DOAJ criteria. The findings are quite exciting. I have not finished checking each journal, so I just provide my initial findings here.

Nearly no questionable journals found

In my list there are 1222 journals and the number is still increasing. As only state-owned organizations, such as universities, institutes, academic societies, government bodies and hospitals, are licensed to create a journal, among all the journals in my list, there are no questionable journals found. For any individual it is not possible to register a new journal in China. Some journals are registered overseas, with editorial offices in China, but as they only have one ISSN number and they could not be licensed with a CN series publication number from the Chinese authorities, these journals are not recognized in the academic system in China.

Open as free access

It is surprising to see that many Chinese journals are offering free reading and downloading of their current articles on their website. This could be something we call “free access” rather than true open access according to the BOAI definition and DOAJ practice. In my experience working as a DOAJ ambassador in China, making articles freely available in this way would be regarded as “open access” by many publishers and editors. There could possibly be 1,000 or so journals in my list that are applying this free access practice, as a best estimation at this moment. So we are actually quite open to sharing academic articles in China and editors and scholars are contributing to the open access movement.

Published in Chinese

Due to developments in technology, traditional print journals are now able to release their articles in both print and online format. But, although all the journals studied have a website, nearly all are in Chinese only, both for their website and articles and even abstracts. Making articles online for free access would definitely increase the impact of journals and that is one of the major motives for journal editors. So it is easily understandable that these journals were born in Chinese and their presence online is still in Chinese. However this makes the content only accessible for Chinese speakers in the world.

Some with embargo

Another common misunderstanding of open access in China is the accepted practice of imposing an embargo. As the majority of journals in China still operate under a subscription model for their print version, a period of embargo would certainly be beneficial for the journal, as the editorial office might still rely on the subscription fee of print journals to fund the publishing operation. I could not report an accurate percentage of embargoed free access journals but the feeling is that quite a large number of journals do have embargo policies in place.

Business model exploration

It was interesting to find that, though the number is very small among the 1200 journals in my list, some journals did cease to update their website with full text articles while keeping the site updated with news, announcements and even the table of contents or abstracts of the current issue. This may reflect the exploration of business models in recent years, as people embrace the open access idea but at the same time face financial challenges on sustainability. So some journals have changed back to a pure subscription model, using the website as a way to showcase the journal and increase awareness.

A very small number of journals are collaborating with commercial journal database vendors in China. While these journals provide extensive information online about the journal, for example, editorial boards, instructions to authors, current issue and archive article lists and even abstracts, access to the full text is directed to the commercial journal databases which then generally charge for the downloading of articles. Such commercial agreements would be likely to make a journal hesitate before converting to a free or open access model.

No open access statement and copyright statement

If there could be a clear statement of adherence to the BOAI definition of open access and adoption of Creative Common copyright licenses by Chinese journals, then we would be confident to say that we have quite a large number of open access journals in China, and to be able to increase the number of Chinese journals in DOAJ. However, this will require time and effort to communicate with editors to adopt best practices in academic open access publishing. As only state-owned bodies can be licensed to publish a journal, it generally means that the journals are managed by owners who are not publishers, the editorial office is often quite small and it is hard to make the move to a pure OA model. In fact, having  so many free access journals in China is already quite a big step.

New model of creating open access journals in English

Of the 71 Chinese journals already indexed in DOAJ, 25 of them are published by Elsevier and 7 by Springer. This reflects a new model in academic publishing in China where a university, research institute or hospital could create an English-language journal in partnership with a big brand publisher. With platform and technology support from the publisher as well as funding for the publishing operation, these newly established journals can apply standard open access practice from the very beginning, and usually the publisher rather than the editorial office will then apply for inclusion in DOAJ.

In general, the Chinese government is encouraging sharing, innovative, green and sustainable principles in both economic and social development. The open access publishing model is seen as the trend for the future by editors, scholars, librarians and publishers in China. Due to the different understanding of what is truly an open access journal, there is still work to do in the community in China to move forward to achieve our goals.

Quality open access publishing and registration to Directory of Open Access Journals

Original Article Link: http://www.escienceediting.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.6087/kcse.82

After a workshop in Seoul on 31 Oct 2016 with editors from academic publishers in Korea, I have wrote an aritle for Science Editing on the title “Quality open access publishing and registration to Directory of Open Access Journals”.

With the fast development of open access publishing worldwide, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) as a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals, has been recognized for its high criteria in facilitating high quality open access scholarly publishing and used as the portal for accessing quality open access journals. While the numbers of journal application to be inclusion in DOAJ in Asia are kept increasing dramatically, many editors of these journals are not very clear about the idea or concept of the open access which have been embedded in the application form containing 58 questions falling into several different criteria categories. The very commonly seen misunderstanding of the required item, inaccurate or vague or incomplete and even missing information, poorly organized website, non-transparent process of publishing, especially no open access statement and copyright statement, or conflicts between the policy statements would cause much more communication between the reviewer and the editor and delay the completion of the review. This article gives an in depth introduction to DOAJ criteria and detailed introduction to the general process on how to register to DOAJ, suggestions based on application review also is given for journal editors to better prepare for this application. And it is the most important for editors to keep in mind that to be indexed by DOAJ is not just about filling a form, it is about truly change and adapt to best practices in open access publishing.

Please find this article on the Science Editing online journal: http://www.escienceediting.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.6087/kcse.82

 

 

网络时代:教育如何面对“数字原住民”

本文发表于发表于《中国教育报》理论周刊,2016年11月3日第5版。发表当日获得人民网、光明网(理论)、新民网等媒体广泛转载。

作者毕新,发表于《中国教育报》2016年11月3日第5版

以学生为中心组织学与教的过程,帮助学生完成面向未来的能力和竞争力培养,是网络时代的必然选择。学生未来的成功,才是一个大学保持生命力的根本保障。

我国高等教育从精英化到大众化再到普及化所经过的20年时间,恰是信息与网络技术迅猛发展的20年。信息技术在颠覆了多个行业以后,正在进攻高等教育这一领域。“浸泡”在人类自己发明的网络环境中,认知模式和学习行为也发生了变化。当前,不论是拥有悠久历史的老大学,还是刚刚成立的新大学中的教师,都发现自己面对的是“不一样”的学生。站在网络时代的十字路口,当高等教育日趋国际化,生源在世界范围内流动加剧,如何实现办学水平提升、实现差异化发展?

 学习行为模式已变

当前在校大学生是在计算机和互联网的环境中长大的,对于各种技术应用从小就习以为常,因此也被称为“数字原住民”。相比较于“数字移民”一代人,这一代学生的行为模式和学习方式对于大学教学造成了冲击,如课堂出勤率低、离不开电子设备、听讲不专心、在网络上搜索答案完成作业、偏爱碎片化的电子阅读等。为了让学生能够重新回到课堂并认真听讲,教师们采用了很多办法,如强制点名、随堂测试、固定学生座位并拍照考勤、课前收缴手机等。这些有趣的新现象充分揭示了新的学习行为模式和传统的课堂教学方式之间的矛盾。

网络时代的学生习惯于快速接受信息,擅长多任务处理模式,喜欢即时的肯定和频繁的奖励,更喜欢“游戏”的模式而不是“严肃”的模式,依赖网络的连通性,喜欢根据自己的习惯和偏好使用信息技术,喜欢迅速实时的反馈,倾向于基于文本的交流,但在面对面交流方面显得能力不足,娱乐技术和游戏工具时刻围绕着他们。而这些新的行为模式,为传统的高校教师和教学模式带来了相当的困扰。

同时,互联网及其海量信息,让教师对于知识的垄断成为过去,教师和教材不再是获取知识的唯一渠道,课堂学习也不再是最有效率的知识传授方式。当面对数字化时代的学生时,全世界的高等院校实际上站在了同一个起跑线上。

传统的课堂模式以教师为中心,基本上通过课堂授课的形式,单向传递知识。由于教师和教材垄断着知识,学生很难从其他渠道获取知识,所以课堂授课是教与学的主要形式。在网络时代,不论是内容还是形式,知识都可以在网络上随时随地获得,这就打破了教师和课堂授课的不可替代性。对于学生的管理和评估过程也变得更为困难,因为学生很容易就从网络上搜索到答案,或者是同学之间通过在线分享。因此,学习理论和教学实践都需要随着当前学生的认知行为模式的改变而变化。

 网络时代的学习理论

当计算机网络技术飞速发展并彻底改变了整个世界时,教育正在向着信息化、社会化和网络化发展。学习作为适应时代变化的根本手段,也发生了重大的变化。任何关注自身生存和发展的学生,任何关注学生学习成效的教师,都不能不关注网络时代学习能力的演化和变迁,以及这种认知层面的变化所带来的潜在影响。新的学习理论为网络时代的教与学提供了理论基础并指明了方向。

信息技术的发展对于学习、生活以及交流方式进行了变革性重组,非正式学习逐渐成为学习方式的主流,“技术支撑”成为信息化学习的主要特征。面对数字技术引起的教与学活动的系列变革,关联主义学习理论注重学习的外部过程和社会化过程,认为知识是一种组织而非一种结构,经历了从分类、层级到网络和生态的变革,具有动态性、多元化的特性;每一个人都是知识的创造者、传播者、接收者、拥有者和终结者。信息借助网络等媒介以“信息流”的形式在不同个体间相互流转,进而形成多种多样的知识网络。因此,学习是一个连续的、不断构建知识网络的过程;知识网络的创建是保持知识时代性、持续性和创新性的前提和基础。

同样,面对数字化学习的变革和挑战,随着学习科学和认知科学的发展,继行为主义和认知主义学习理论之后,建构主义已成为目前主流的学习理论。建构主义强调学习是在已有的经验基础上通过与外界的相互作用来获取、建构新知识的过程。这种建构不是外界刺激的直接反应,而是通过已有的认知结构对新信息进行主动加工而形成的。这种学习更强调学习的主动性、社会性、情境性和协作性。其理论核心是以学生为中心,在整个教学过程中由教师利用情境、协作、会话等学习环境要素充分发挥学生的主动性、积极性和首创精神,最终达到使学生有效地实现对当前所学知识的意义建构之目的

 重新定义教与学

基于网络时代的的学习理论,我们需要重新思考知识、学习和教师的关系,重新定义和定位大学。

网络时代的知识观认为,人类知识是对客观世界的一种解释,它不是最终的答案,更不是终极的真理,而是会随着人类社会的发展和科学技术的进步不断被新知识和新理论取代,所以知识是动态的过程,随着认识程度的不断深化,被新的知识所取代。因此我们不能够将知识作为预先决定了的东西让学生接受,对于同样知识的真正理解需要在特定的学习环境下,基于个体经验的自主建构。

网络时代的学习观强调建构的主动性。学习者首先是一个主体,作为学习活动的发出者,学习者拥有毋庸置疑的主动性。知识的获得不是通过老师的教授而习得,是通过学生对于知识的自我建构,主动进行信息吸收,在原有认知基础上对于新信息进行加工整合来完成的。

网络时代的教学观认为,在学习过程中,师生关系是平等的,教师的角色将转变为学生的学习组织者和管理者,甚至是学习伙伴。教学不再是知识在师生之间的单向传递,因为学习的最终完成依赖于个体自身的主动建构。个体原有经验与知识结构作为学习或建构的基础,构成了学习的起点,因此,教师教学的起点就在于对学生个体已有经验图式的理解和把握。

网络时代技术驱动带来的变革既是挑战,也是机遇。对于需要克服自身传统和运行惯性的老大学来说,挑战多一些;而对于新兴大学,更容易拥抱技术变革,采用创新的教学法,机遇多一些。当前我国数千所大学“千校一面”,既需要在发展中找到自己的特色、定位,增强创新能力,提升人才培养质量,又面对着学生生源减少、高等教育国际化竞争、学生学习行为模式改变等压力。以学生为中心组织学与教的过程,帮助学生完成面向未来的能力和竞争力培养,是网络时代的必然选择。学生未来的成功,才是一所大学保持生命力的根本保障。

本文获得其他网络转载:

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